Frequently Asked Questions


R5 Robots

What is the radio frequency used on the robots?

2.4GHz is used globally.

Is the new 75% charging strategy on 10+ robot installations included in the operating manuals? Is it applicable to existing systems as well as new?


What is the recommended number of charge points for the robots?

With more than 10 R5s, there should be chargers for at least 75% of the robot count.

What is the maximum R5 robot speed?

Max speed is 3.1 meter per second (10 feet per second)
Acceleration is 0.8 meter per second (2.6 feet per second).
Lifting speed is 1.6 meter per second (5.2 feet per second).
Acceleration lift is 2.5 meter per second (8.2 feet per second).

Can the robot speed be adjusted or controlled?

Currently, this is hard coded and controlled in robot firmware.

What ensures that the robots do not collide on the grid?

The ASCS software plans and controls robot traffic to ensure robots will not collide. The robots report their position continuously to the ASCS software. The robot driving control is done by the motor encoder and secured by two different track sensors for each direction.

What is the lifetime design and expectancy of the batteries for each R5 robot?

The estimated lifetime for the Chairman AGM 12105T battery used in AutoStore R5 is:

  • Systems running 8 hours a day, 5 days a week: 8 years
  • Systems running 16 hours a day, 5 days a week: 4 years
  • Systems running more than 16 hours a day, more than 5 days a week: 2 -4 years

What is the weight of a R5 robot?

The robot weight, including batteries, is 148 Kilos (326.25 pounds).

With a maximum bin load (30kg/66lbs), this would be about 183 Kilo (about 403.5 pounds).

What kind of battery is used in the R5 robot?

R5 uses two 12V/105Ah AGM batteries (lead acid -Absorbed Glass Mat) as a standard.

How many picks can you calculate per R5 robot?

This is case specific, but a rough rule of thumb is 25 bin presentations per robot per hour (+/-). However, even up to 40 bins per robot is possible. A system simulation will provide a more accurate count.

What is the typical recharging cycle time of a R5 robot (example: minutes to recharge per hour of operation or describing a shift operation)?

For a normal working day of less than 20 hours: Each robot needs at least 4 hours of continuous charging per day to maintain battery lifetime. Robots will opportunistically charge when the activity on the grid allows it.

For a 24-hour operation: Additional robots are needed to accommodate the charging needs and to secure a long battery lifetime.

Does the system have the same performance with a full bin load of 30 kg (66lbs) as with an empty bin?


Does the system have a proven and reliable operation even with unbalanced loads in the bins?

Yes, but an extremely unbalanced load (e.g. 30kg in one corner or less than 1/3 of the compartment) can increase abrasion wear of parts.

What is the lifetime design and expectancy of the robot engines?

This is dependent on weight, driving frequency, lifting frequency, operational hours, and other factors.

Can R5 drive on DDG?

Yes, newer R5s have an adjusted chassis to fit the slightly longer tracks.

Can an older R5 drive on DDG?

No. The chassis of the older R5 models do not fit the extended grid.

Will R5 Robot go out of production now that Black Line has been introduced?

No. R5 Robot and the other Red Line modules will continue to be our focus. Black Line addresses a different market segment and R5 Robot is still our flagship robot.

B1 Robots

Has the battery voltage and amperage changed between R5 and B1?

Yes, this has changed. B1 has a new battery pack which is different from R5. The B1 battery is 26.4V and 15Ah.

How is the new Black Line charger maintained, from inside the grid or from outside the grid (as the existing Red Line charger is maintained)?

Maintenance of the charger is performed inside the grid.

How many B1 robots can you deliver 12 weeks from now?

At this time there is no limitation in production volumes of B1.

What is the noise level difference between Black Line and Red Line?

Due to its advanced construction and central cavity, B1 robots will reduce the noise level by 10db, which will appear to be twice as silent to the human ear.

What is the operation time per B1 robot in a 24/7 operation?

The operation time per robot in a 24/7 operation is 99% due to the exchangeable BattPacks of B1, which will significantly reduce the robot’s charging time. The BattPacks technology allows B1 to switch a low battery for a fully charged battery.

What is the operation time per B1 robot in an 8-hour, 12-hour and 16-hour operations?

The exchangeable battery pack found on the B1 is beneficial to operations above 10 hours per day. The advantage of the exchangeable battery pack will increase when the hours of operation per day increases.

Why can Black Line accommodate a higher number of robots on the same grid size than Red Line?

Two main reasons:

  1. B1 blocks only 1.5 cells versus 2 cells as with R5.
  2. Black Line uses a DDG, enabling Robots to pass each other in all directions not just one direction as with SDG (R5 with the extended chassis can also run on DDG).

Why does B1 cover more than 1 cell?

Acceleration of robots is key for AutoStore, especially in high-density areas. To achieve the increased acceleration of B1 and maintain the center of gravity and thus the stability, B1 covers more than one cell.

What battery is used in B1 and what is the expected lifetime?

B1 uses 26.4V/15Ah Lithium Ion batteries (LiFePO4) as a standard.

B1 battery lifetime is estimated between 6 years (1 shift) and 2 years (3 shift operation). Actual lifetime will vary depending on average Bin load, average temperature, etc. Batteries will still perform out of the recommended period but below their optimal capacity.

Can current customers with a SDG upgrade to B1 robots?

Yes, you can add B1 Robots to an existing SDG (and run them parallel to R5), although the increase in throughput will be lower than with a DDG.

After switching its battery, B1 stands still for a short period. Why?

This is because it will charge its capacitor before resuming work.

What is the recommended number of charge points for the robots?

For B1 we recommend between 30-50% of the robot count in chargers with batteries.

What is the maximum speed for B1?

The max speed is 4.0 meters per second (13 feet per second) with Acceleration of 1.4 meters per second squared (4.6 feet per second squared).

Lifting speed is 1.6 meters per second (5.2 feet per second) with Acceleration lift of 2.5 meters per second squared (8.2 feet per second squared).

How many picks can you calculate per B1 robot?

This is case specific. A general rule of thumb is 30 bins per hour for B1 robots. A Simulation will determine a more accurate count.

What is the difference in maintenance complexity between B1 and R5?

Due to a lower number of moving parts inB1, the maintenance complexity is expected to be lower than R5.

Is it possible to add B1 to my system regardless of the modules I’ve purchased before (Bins, Robots, Ports, Grid)?

Yes. Black Line is backwards compatible with all Red Line modules. However, there maybe less benefit in adding Black Line modules to a grid unable to support the higher speed.

What is high throughput for B1? And when should we use B1 robots?

The current R5 robot has proven to be the perfect solution for customers with system throughputs up to 5000 bins per hour. Although it is possible to have Red Line systems with even higher performance, due to its higher acceleration and top speed, B1 will outperform R5 on large installations, running 2-3 shifts while achieving similar performance levels as shuttle systems.

How long does it take to charge the B1 batteries?

From 0% to 100%: 40-45 min
From 50% to 100%: 15-20min
From 75% to 100%: 8-10min

How long does it take for one B1 battery to discharge?

The B1 battery will last approximately 2 hours from 100-0%. As with R5, to maintain battery lifetime we will perform more battery exchanges in order to keep the average battery level high.

Do we have a hazard report on the new modules? Are they compliant to all the local safety regulations?

We machine and safety test for B1 and the RelayPort.

Does the fire classification change between Red Line and Black Line as a result of the DDG, different robot design, and Lithium batteries?

We are currently conducting fire tests to compare SDG and DDG.

Does the higher robot body and center of gravity change the crash barrier height?

No, the crash barrier height is the same for B1 and R5.

Is there a new crash barrier certification for Black Line?

No, as with R5, there no certificate. The test has been done in house by our organization.

What is the strategy for maintaining a more than 98% availability for grids with more than 300 robots operating?

To keep downtime to a minimum, we continuously improve the Xhandler, which removes issues without stopping the system. Large grids should always have multiple service areas to increase accessibility and reduce downtime when retrieving a robot.

Has the robot recovery vehicle’s design changed for Black Line modules due to the increased height of the robot and increased height of the center of gravity?

There is no need to change the strategy for removing robots from the grid, hence the service vehicle remains the same. Due to the taller robot, the service wall has been upgraded to fit both robots.

What is the range covered by each access point?

2.4 GHz: Up to 30 robots (Max 50)/ std. range circle 25m radius per AP (max up to 50m).

Old installations in Europe: 433MHZ: Up to 30robots / std. range circle 25m radius per AP (max up to 50m).

Old installations in US: 915MHz: Up to 30 robots (Max 50)/ std. range circle 25m radius per AP (max up to 50m).

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